Alice and Gertrude, Gertrude and Alice
What Toklas did do, and did superbly, was to facilitate in every possible way the works of Gertrude Stein. For almost twenty-five years after Stein's death in 1946 she continued to encourage their publication and study. To be sure, she tried to edit the past a bit--but what widow has not?
Unfortunately, Alice-bashing has become an almost ineluctable meme among Stein scholars. It seems that hardly anybody loves Alice B. Toklas. In her way, Alice ("Pussy") had the last laugh, because her Baby definitely loved her. That was what mattered.
Now comes Janet Malcolm, a formidable biographical investigator. Like the two "New Yorker" pieces on which it is based, Malcolm's new book, "Two Lives: Gertrude and Alice" (Yale University Press), is riveting. She tones down the Alice-bashing a bit, but it is there, true to form. What need is there to tell us that when Toklas was in her eighties she drooled her food while eating? That is really petty.
Throughout Malcolm is exercised by the fact that the two women paid little attention to their Jewish heritage. She even specuates that Gertrude might have left somewhere, a cache of letters of correspondence with a rabbi. Not likely. What really sticks in Malcolm's craw is that Toklas converted to Catholicism after Stein's death. So what? Many of us convert to or from various things. Why not Alice B. Toklas.
Malcolm's is a post-Holocaust sensibility, formed in part by her Czech-Jewish immigrant father, a psychoanalyst. She has little understanding of how Jewish persons, raised in America more than a hundred years ago, might feel.
I can throw some light on this matter via my close friend Arthur Cyrus Warner, whose life and accomplishments, I noted (all too briefly) in these pages in July. Arthur was born in 1918, so that his parents were roughly of the same generation as Stein and Toklas. Ceasing to be observant, they changed their name from Warshofsky to Warner. If you asked them if they were Jewish, they would not deny it, but assimilation was what they were seeking. (As Arthur explained to me, the term in those days was "Hebrew.") The Warners felt no more need to get in touch with their religious roots than did my parents, who shunned contact with their ostensible Christian roots. They were atheists, and felt no attraction to such delvings. I think that Stein and Toklas were much the same as the Warners, except that they didn't change their surnames. These were things that one needn't worry about. The thing to do was to make a major contribution to literary modernism. That Gertrude Stein did, with Alice B. Toklas helping all along the way.
There is another factor that I can attest from personal experience. After one has lived, as an American, abroad for a while one feels a need to affirm one's Americanness. For one thing, one is repelled by the ridiculous misinformation spread by America-haters abroad. (Not that there is not much to criticize on these shores. I do so myself. But the criticisms should be based on facts, not thoughtless stereotypes.)
Stein and Toklas solicited seeds from the US to grow corn (maize) on their French property. When the American soldiers came to liberate Stein's little town, they offered her a ride on a jeep. "You bet!" she exclaimed. Only an American would say that.
Central to Gertrude Stein's best work is her reinvention of language. She applied the "making strange" principle to ordinary English phrases. Except that they were American phrases. Significantly, most of the real Stein scholars are Americans, and not Brits or Europeans.
There is one significant exception: Bernard Fay a French Americanist, who helped protect Stein and Toklas during World War II. An extreme rightwinger, Fay was an anti-Semite, a factor he suspended in his fondness for Stein and Toklas. But then the two women suspended one of their own prejudices. Like some lesbians I have known, Stein approved of female same-sex love, but thought that male homosexuality was wrong. Fay was gay. Fay "overlooked" something, and Stein reciprocated.
Thank goodness we don't always act according to our unfortunate general theories.
A year ago I assigned Stein's "Tender Buttons" to my Symbolism class. I'm not sure that the students knew what to make of it. The answer is that the more you read Stein the better sense you make of her. May Malcolm's book, flawed as it is, contribute to this supremely good cause.